The adoption of millimeter wave phased arrays for a variety of applications has led to an increased need for on-chip antenna measurements
The antenna elements are tested via micro-probe connections due to their tiny dimensions. For typical wireless applications (e.g. 5G/NR or IEEE 802.11.ad) these phased arrays, are expected to provide near omni-directional coverage. Even with carefully designed spherical antenna measurement system, the micro-probe and its positioner provide blockage and errors due to scattering. Judicious design of reference antennas can significantly improve the quality of the overall measurement.